International Multidisciplinary Academic Journal

International Multidisciplinary Academic Journal

Postby Wu Han » Mon Apr 30, 2018 9:03 pm

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The International Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, or IMAJ, is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to research in the social sciences and humanities around the world. It specializes in the publication of individual research articles, review essays, and book reviews. IMAJ is published by the Kaizhou National University Press in Kaizhou, Jiaozhi, Indrala.

Articles published:
Park, Han-sol. “Contextualizing Monarchism: The Indralan System.” International Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, 4385.
Ye, Jinfeng. "The World of Dalibor's Triads." International Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, 4385.
Last edited by Wu Han on Sat May 12, 2018 6:39 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: International Multidisciplinary Academic Journal

Postby Wu Han » Mon Apr 30, 2018 10:08 pm

Contextualizing Monarchism: The Indralan System
Article published in the Spring/Summer 4385 International Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, written by Professor Park Han-sol (Enshi University) and reviewed by Dr. Liu Tanzhou (Indrala University) and Dr. Qu Yangchan (Tian'an National University).
Spring/Summer, 4385 (Vol 1., No. 1)
Abstract: Trapped in the logic of the left-right paradigm, political imagination and analysis remain largely restricted. In this way, the left and the right have both attacked the monarchy in recent years, claiming that the Emperor is a symbol of an undemocratic system, while neglecting objective analysis of the Emperor's role. Thus, this paper will endeavor to look past the political paradigm and understand the role of the Monarch in the 4300s and beyond.
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Monarchy in Indrala: Spiritual Implications
The Indralan monarchy has evolved over many millennia to support governments in a variety of historical contexts, from primitive society to a modern nation-state. In the contemporary era, Indrala was ruled by the He Dynasty from 2966-4141. Differing from the monarchical practices of other nations around Terra, part of the reason for the longevity of monarchism in Indrala is its deep spiritual and religious foundation.

As the Dranian historian Juan Martin published in his widely regarded Martin Divergence theory, the conception of Heaven, Shangdi, or God most common among the peoples of Dovani originated in Indrala. Additionally, Martin notes that the Indralan conception of God translated into the Mandate of Heaven theory, which states that the ruler is the representative of Heaven on Terra. Therefore, the Indralan monarch is viewed by those who profess the Guidao/Jienist faith (88% of Indralans, according to the 4330 Census) as not only a religious leader but as the literal bond uniting the spiritual and earthly plains and absolutely essential to their religious practices.

The Mandate of Heaven is the most enduring political theory in Indrala. According to this theory, and as stated above, god selects a particular individual to rule on its behalf on Terra. An important element of the mandate was that although the ruler had been given great power he also had a moral obligation to use it for the good of his people, if he did not then his state would suffer terrible disasters and he would lose the right to govern. In this way, Indralan monarchs have fundamentally understood the importance of responsible governance, while Indralan subjects have always understood that the monarch required their consent to be ruled. This ancient theory predates western social contract or any other theory regarding the rights of citizens by at least a thousand years.

The relationship, spiritually, between the Emperor and the people of Indrala is best characterized for western readers as that between a devout patriarchalists and the Arch-Patriarch within the Aurorian Patriarchal Church. However, while the Arch-Patriarch is regarded as the sole legitimate successor of St. Michael whom God had given the mandate to continue the church, the Indralan Emperor is considered the direct appointee of Heaven. In other words, only the Emperor, referred to as the Son of Heaven, has supreme authority to govern in Terra as he has been selected directly by Heaven.

Legitimacy
To gain the Mandate of Heaven, the Indralan monarch has to secure the legitimacy to rule. This manifests in two forms: spiritual legitimacy and popular legitimacy. Sun Yijun, at present enthroned as Emperor of the State of Indrala secured this legitimacy of the following before being coronated on the dragon throne. Using the Emperor as a case study, this paper will explore these forms of legitimacy:

The Indralan Emperor is granted sacred legitimacy based upon the ruler’s special relationship with the supernatural. Ancient agricultural societies in Indrala were completely dependent upon the benevolence of nature for their survival. Drought, flood, insects, and disease could all destroy a people’s livelihood. Consequently, most ancient societies believed in a spiritual realm where spiritual forces controlled the forces of nature. These ancient beliefs have persisted today in the Indralan religious tradition of Guidao. The Emperor of Indrala, as the incarnate bond between heaven and terra is required to perform rituals and prayers for a good harvest. The performance of religious rituals to secure peace and prosperity for the people gives the Emperor a measure of sacred legitimacy. In the case of Sun Yijun, he became the most prominent candidate to rule Indrala when, in 4331 he visited the impoverished and drought-ridden village of Dawei, in northern Anle. Following his departure, the drought reversed, leading many to proclaim him as the Son of Heaven. In this way, Sun Yijun was able to demonstrate, to the satisfaction of the public, that he indeed had the spiritual legitimacy required to govern as mandated by heaven.

As Jienshi proclaimed, "The people are of supreme importance; the altars of the gods of earth and grain come next; last comes the ruler. That is why he who gains the confidence of the multitudinous people will be Emperor." This concept was invoked multiple times during the restoration debates in 4330s.

In 4330, during the Indrala Monarchy Restoration Referendum, the affirmative side won with 51.3% of the vote. Turnout for the referendum was 81.85%. Opinion polls placed the affirmative side slightly higher before and after the referendum. This was the first step by the pro-monarchist Indralan government in securing popular legitimacy for the Emperor. The Lotus Party and Jien Party thought they could gain popular support for Ji Yu of the Ji Clan (descendents of Jienshi) and thus proposed a constitutional amendment confirming Ji Yu as Emperor in 4334. Following the aforementioned Dawei Miracle however, Sun Yijun was the clear favourite by the public for the role. In debate in the National Conference, Phoenix Party Minister of Internal Affairs Gang Wu broke with the coalition when he publically announced his party's support for Sun Yijun. In the now legendary remarks, Gang Wu asked: "Will we ignore the Dawai miracle... The Sun Clan has repeatedly shown a capability for capturing the respect of the people and devoting themselves to the betterment of society." Following his break with the coalition, the constitutional amendment failed. Observing incredibly high public polling in favour of the Sun Clan, the Jien Party and Lotus Party conceded and endorsed Sun Yijun. Finally, when Sun Yijun rode to Tian'an from Kaizhou followed by tens of thousands of people, and met by hundreds of thousands more, it was clear that he had secured the support of the multitude.

Democratic Consequences
In recent years, monarchism has been challenged by forces, particularly on the extreme-left and extreme-right, who view the monarch as despotic and undemocratic. This paper would suggest, however, that this is not a valid position. First, the Indralan Emperor at present is apolitical and essentially constitutionally powerless. In such a condition, there is no way by which the monarch can exercise despotic power. The second charge, that of the Emperor being undemocratic is one which requires a longer response.

First, the Emperor was confirmed by democratic processes and is empowered or disempowered at the will of elected officials. In this sense, the role itself is at the will of Indrala's democratic institutions. Second, the presence of the Emperor has prevented constitutional manipulations and thwarted the overthrow of democratic institutions by fascist or communist movements. In the Fourth Republic, the fascist dictator Tony Pua used his role as President to condense all power in his leadership. Contemporaneously, the Emperor's very existence in Indrala's constitutional framework has prevented the Communist Party (which has written and spoken extensively about implementing a dictatorial regime) from taking power.

For the final point, this paper will return to the concept of the Mandate of Heaven. As mentioned above, the political concept stipulates that if a ruler is not governing in the best interest of the people, they have lost the right to rule and can be replaced or overthrown. When a government has lost the confidence of the people of Indrala, does it not fall? In this sense, is the Emperor not the embodiment of Indralan democracy?

Conclusion
The Mandate of Heaven theory has given much to Indrala's democratic tradition. Most notably, it has always instilled the deeply held belief that power is never permanent; in other words, people must consent to be governed. To this end, in the Indralan context, the monarchy is a safeguard and symbol of Indrala's democracy.
Last edited by Wu Han on Sat May 12, 2018 6:39 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: International Multidisciplinary Academic Journal

Postby Wu Han » Sat May 12, 2018 6:37 pm

The World of Dalibor's Triads
Article published in the Spring/Summer 4385 International Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, written by Professor Ye Jinfeng (Kaizhou National University) and reviewed by Dr. Gao Jinhuan (Haejo Imperial College) and Dr. Zhang Ruogang (Tian'an National University).
Spring/Summer, 4385 (Vol 1., No. 1)
Abstract: The Daliboran criminal underground has grown significantly during and following the fall of the Hyperion Corporation's governance of the fledgling island nation. This paper will explore the origins and contemporary operations of the so-called 'Triad' groups.
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Origins

In post-colonial Dalibor, following the World Financial Crisis in 4202, marginalized lower-class men formed brotherhoods for mutual support and protection. The exact origins of these groups are surrounded in legend. Many of the founding myths of these groups claim that members of the leadership trace direct descent to the ancient Liu Imperial family in Indrala, which was the Clan which ruled over Indrala and Dalibor following their ascension to the throne. Dalibor was colonized by Indrala in 2549. Claiming Liu ancestry provided these gangs of bandits, swindlers, and landless farmers with a veneer of legitimacy that they otherwise could never have attained.

Under the early years of the Hyperion Corporation's governance of Dalibor, Triad gangs prospered. Hyperion authorities, as a result of their strong business focus and the language barrier, entrusted mid and low-level Dalibor bureaucrats with routine everyday local governance. The Hyperion disconnect from the general population created ample opportunities for local Daliboran civil servants to take advantage of their positions, including working with Triad members and other criminals for their own benefit.

During the Daliboran civil conflict (4289-4320?) however, most Triad groups aligned themselves with Nationalist freedom fighters. This granted the gangs a level of populist support unrivalled by any other faction in Dalibor at the time. During the Wolfshiem Plague, the three major Triad Gangs (White Tigers, Spitting Snakes, Tian Long Tong) distributed nearly 78.9% of all vaccinations in the regions outside of Dalibor City.

Following the conflict, the pullout of Dalibor by the Hyperion Corporation as well as a return to democracy left a power vacuums which the Triads capitalized on. A key factor that allowed Triads to flourish in Dalibor was the development of a political-criminal nexus (PCN) between organized crime and crooked civil servants, much as had existed in the aforementioned early days of Hyperion governance. Widespread corruption and the fragility of the democracy helped the Triads amass unprecedented power during this period. At present, these gangs are the omnipresent political and economic force in Dalibor, subverting any real power from any level of traditional government.

Practices in Contemporary Dalibor

Triad gangs are named as such due to their hierarchical structure, which aesthetically looks similar to a triangle (see: Fig. 1). Currently, there are about fifty triad societies that operate out of Dailbor, but only three that attract regular international police attention. The largest and most powerful are the Phoenix Brothers, White Tigers and Tian Long Tong. All three groups are involved in transnational organized crime and have an active membership presence outside of Dalibor in Indrala, other areas of Dovani, Seleya, Keris and Artania. In recent years these groups and their leaders have made substantial investments in legitimate and “grey” businesses in order to launder money and create a facade of legality. Nonetheless, triad groups retain a strong hand in illegitimate activities including, but not limited to: drug trafficking and street level dealing, human trafficking, prostitution, hacking, gambling, online gambling, extortion, smuggling, financial fraud, racketeering, kidnapping and robbery.

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Figure 1: The hiergraphical relationship between members of a Triad gang

Although violence is commonplace during Triad operations, lethality is seldom intended. Triad-related homicides compared to those perpetrated by other organized groups elsewhere, are remarkably low. This is partially due to the region’s stringent gun control, but also to the realization that excessive violence disrupts markets (even illicit ones) and attracts unwanted law enforcement attention from abroad. Triad gangs in Dalibor have substantially infiltrated the political system of Dovani, such that domestic police rarely investigate or interfere with their operations. Thus, most criminal justice efforts undertaken against Triad gangs comes from abroad, most notably neighbouring Indrala.

Rather than simple infiltration of the government, it would more accurate to state that Dalibor's Triads function as the government. The incredible inefficiency of the Daliboran tax system, as a result of political corruption, has crippled any attempt by the legitimate government to operate. Even more so, with most private contractors in the country having some connection to a Triad, government expenditure occurs in an excessibely inefficient way, often siphoned directly toward these illicit organizations. The present President of Dalibor himself, Li Lingfei, has been rumoured to be a member of the Spitting Snakes triad. From the days of Hyperion election rigging, until today, Daliborans have very little interest in the legitimate political system. In the last legislative election, which occurred in 4380, only 16.4% of the general population with suffrage voted.

In reality, many Triads function as the government within their territories, in terms of healthcare provision, infrastructure, education, and even to an extent, criminal justice. Historically, Triad groups have always exhibited strong territoriality, both spatially and in economic sectors where they are active. A formal agreement between the three major Triad gangs signed in 4379 has ended overt incursions into territory operated by another gang, granting a degree of stability unseen in a long time. This does not mean, however, that all three groups are at peace.

In April 4382, the Spitting Snakes triad and the White Tigers triad mustered around one hundred gang members each, in a fight over the “right to protect” a newly opened restaurant in Dalibor City’s 'foreigner' district, long understood to be White Tiger territory. After a bout of bloody fighting with hand to hand weaponry, the Phoenix Brothers' group triumphed. Two and a half years later, Du Yiuhing the leader of the Phoenix Brothers' cohort was gunned down in Udon Nakhon, Hanzen, likely in a revenge killing arranged by the White Tigers. These gruesome incidents highlight non-economically motivated uses of violence by triad groups: protecting group honour and getting revenge. Traditionally, after taking a blood oath of initiation, members are obliged to consider themselves family and are “expected not to do harm to their blood brothers even under untoward circumstances and to sacrifice themselves for the triad society.”

Future for Triads

With little to no interference in their operations, Triad groups are expected to continue to prosper in the foreseeable future. As Triads continue to enter into legitimate commercial dealings with businesses within Dalibor and around the world, the line between criminal enterprise and 'holdings firm' is becoming blurred. The international community must do more to urge the Daliboran government to get serious about fighting corruption and building the rule of law. Key international actors, most importantly Indrala, must deepen inter-governmental law enforcement cooperation, continue and improve efforts to combat money-laundering, and make greater efforts to share intelligence on organized crime. Otherwise, the international community will have to accept that on the island of Dalibor, money, drugs and crime reign supreme.
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